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Potential Clue Associated with Aggressive Prostate Cancer Identified by Rutgers Investigators
Piscataway, NJ -- Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer in men and the leading cause of cancer deaths in white, African-American and Hispanic men, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Current treatment of prostate cancer targets androgens, hormones which promote the growth and spread of cancer cells. However, it remains unclear why, despite treatment, some prostate cancers progress and may become fatal. Researchers at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, part of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, who are studying the underlying mechanisms that cause invasive tumor growth have identified a key transcription factor, a protein which regulates the flow of information from DNA, that is over-produced in treatment-resistant prostate cancer, as well as the two protein kinases that trigger the process. This finding, published and highlighted on the cover of the July issue of Molecular Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) could be utilized to develop treatments for prostate cancer that is resistant to current therapies.
The research team, led by Joseph Fondell, PhD, associate professor of pharmacology, found that in clinically localized human prostate cancer -- cancer that is confined to the prostate and pelvic area -- the key transcription factor termed MED1 is overexpressed, meaning that significantly more MED1 is produced than is typical. According to Fondell, the finding potentially could be used as a biomarker in cancer screenings, indicating to oncologists that the prostate cancer has become aggressive. “As MED1 is a known co-activator of androgen receptors, the overexpression of MED1 is thought to facilitate alternative gene expression patterns that drive treatment-resistant cancer cell growth in the prostate,” Fondell said.
“Our study showed for the first time that MED1 expression is elevated in malignant cells of a statistically significant number of patients with clinical prostate cancer and that this overexpression correlates with an increase in cancer cell growth and invasiveness,” said Feng Jin, PhD, a former graduate student in Fondell’s lab and first author on the study. “In addition to accelerated tumor growth, our study showed that overexpression of MED1 may also be involved with inflammation of the prostate.”
Further study of the process using mouse models that mimic human prostate cancer, showed that two protein kinases, ERK and PI3K/AKT, were overactive and responsible for MED1 overproduction, ultimately accelerating the progression and spread of prostate cancer.
“Whereas the current treatment approach for prostate cancer is to prohibit androgen production and signaling, our findings indicate that MED1 could represent a novel target for new therapies that stop the process at the molecular level, before prostate cancer can progress to an advanced stage,” added Fondell, who also is a member of Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey.
The research was supported by Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Program Award W81XWH-10-1-0227 (J.D. Fondell) and conducted in collaboration with researchers at Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
About Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
As one of the nation's leading comprehensive medical schools, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, part of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in education, research, health care delivery, and the promotion of community health. In cooperation with Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, the medical school's principal affiliate, they comprise New Jersey's premier academic medical center. In addition, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School has 34 other hospital affiliates and ambulatory care sites throughout the region.
Robert Wood Johnson Medical School encompasses 20 basic science and clinical departments, and hosts centers and institutes including The Cardiovascular Institute, the Child Health Institute of New Jersey, the Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, the Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, and the Stem Cell Institute of New Jersey. The medical school maintains educational programs at the undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels for more than 1,500 students on its campuses in New Brunswick and Piscataway, and provides continuing education courses for health care professionals and community education programs. To learn more about Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, visit rwjms.rutgers.edu. Find us online at facebook.com/RWJMedicalSchool and twitter.com/RWJMS.