An image of a smiling family sitting on a couch

Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity

The Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity (CHFCD) is dedicated to leadership, advocacy, and excellence in promoting culturally-responsive, quality health care for diverse populations.

Back to Family Medicine and Community Health


The Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity recognizes that persisting racial and ethnic health disparities in health and health care are major clinical, public health, and societal problems. It has evolved from a program focused primarily on multicultural education and training for health professionals, to an expanded and growing resource for technical assistance, consultation, and research/evaluation services. We foster justice and equity in health care.

Our Mission

Our mission is to improve the delivery of culturally-responsive, patient-and family-centered care to diverse populations through:

  • education and training; 
  • curricular innovations for health care professionals;
  • technical assistance and consultation;
  • research/evaluation that examines access utilization, effectiveness, and outcomes of culturally and linguistically competent health services delivery; and
  • dissemination of diversity information.
A doctor reaches for a pen to fill out forms on a clipboard

Multicultural Education and Training

Our faculty and staff have provided multicultural education and training to residents and medical and public health students at the medical school as well as to numerous physicians and other health care professionals in the United States and abroad.

Technical assistance/ consultation has also been provided to academic medical centers, hospitals, ambulatory care facilities, managed care plans, community organizations, governmental agencies, and medical communications and pharmaceutical companies.

Topics addressed include: 

  • Eliminating health and healthcare disparities
  • Developing clinical and organizational cultural competence
  • Caring for patients with limited English proficiency and health literacy challenges
  • Participatory quality improvement
  • Cross-cultural health promotion and disease prevention
Gastroenterology and Hepatology physician and professor Sita Chokhavatia and Internal Medicine student looking at a computer.
Headshot of Karen WeiRu Lin

Our approach to developing cultural competency involves a systems/ecological perspective, a focus on life-long professional and personal learning, and collaboration with key stakeholders and constituency groups. 

Karen WeiRu Lin, MD, MS, FAAFP

Professor and Director, Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity



In partnership with Federal, state and local organizations, we aim to improve the delivery of culturally-responsive, patient-and family-centered care to diverse populations through:

    • Integrating multicultural education into health professions curricula.

    • Infusing multicultural education into residency and fellowship training programs in hospital and ambulatory care settings.

    • Providing cultural diversity workshops and seminars for faculty, administration, and staff.

    • Offering clinical cultural competency courses, workshops, and programs to practicing physicians and other health care professionals.

    • Serving as a multicultural education resource center for information about family-centered health care and ethnic and cultural diversity.

    • Assisting health care organizations (e.g., managed care organizations, hospitals, ambulatory care facilities, and home health care agencies) in the delivery of culturally and linguistically appropriate services to diverse populations.

    • Collaborating with local communities to assess their health care needs and strengths/assets and to develop culturally-responsive service delivery programs.

    • Advising state and local government in the development and implementation of policies and procedures relating to culturally and linguistically appropriate health care.

    • Evaluating the effectiveness of clinical cultural competency training programs for physicians and other health care professionals.

    • Evaluating the effectiveness of organizational cultural competency training programs for health care organizations.

    • Conducting outcomes research on selected health and illness problems in various racial, ethnic, and socio-cultural groups.

    • Conducting health services and policy research relating to culturally competent health care.

  • Selected examples of major cross-cultural training, technical assistance and research initiatives the CHFCD has actively participated in include:

    • Society of Teachers of Family Medicine's "Recommended Core Curriculum Guidelines for Culturally Sensitive and Competent Health Care" (
    • American Academy of Family Physicians/HRSA "Quality Care for Diverse Populations" educational program (
    • American Institutes for Research/Office of Minority Health "Cultural Competency Curriculum Modules for Family Physicians" project (
    • Office of Minority Health’s “A Physician’s Practical Guide to Culturally Competent Care” (
    • Management Sciences for Health/HRSA "Provider’s Guide to Quality and Culture" website (
    • Institute for Healthcare Improvement/HRSA National Health Disparities Collaboratives "Cultural Competence in the Clinical Care of Patients with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Curriculum"
    • Transforming the Face of Health Professions Through Cultural & Linguistic Competence Education: The Role of the HRSA Centers of Excellence (
    • HRSA and OMH "Cross-Cultural Communication in Health Care: Building Organizational Capacity” National Satellite Educational Broadcast (
    • California Endowment "Principles and Recommended Standards for Cultural Competence Education of Health Care Professionals"/Cultures in the Clinic project (
    • National Committee on Quality Assurance (NCQA) Culturally and Linguistically Applied Services (CLAS) Awards Expert Panel, Minority Grants Advisory Panel and Multicultural Quality Improvement Project
    • Georgetown University National Center for Cultural Competence, "Cultural Competence Health Practitioner Assessment Instrument" and Cultural and Linguistic Competency Policy Assessment” projects (
    • Network Omni Caring with CLAS: cultural competence in health care CME/CE program (
    • UMDNJ Continuing Medical Education Multicultural Education Programs - "REACH: Realizing Equity Across Cultures in Healthcare" and "Building Cultural Competency in Clinical Practice" (Eden Communications/Pfizer)
    • The Praxis Partnership -- Division of CME, University of Alabama School of Medicine; Division of CME, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine; and Nexus Communications, Inc. “Initiative for Decreasing Disparities in Depression (I3D)” (project supported by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals) (
    • American Medical Student Association’s (AMSA) Achieving Diversity in Dentistry and Medicine through Implementing Cultural Competency Curricular Guidelines for Medical Schools Program, “Transforming the Curriculum at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School: Educating Students and Faculty about Culturally Competent Patient Centered Care” grant (
    • Montana State University – Bozeman/Health and Human Development. “Messengers for Health grant” (Indian Health Service health care providers)
    • Bildner Family Foundation New Jersey Campus Diversity Initiative - "Developing Cultural Competency at UMDNJ"
    • Northeast Consortium on Cross Cultural Medical Cultural Medical Education and Practice
    • American Journal of Multicultural Medicine Series (Liberty Communications Network/Cardinal Health)
    • MDNG: Focus on Multicultural Health Care publication, Physician Editor-in-Chief (
    • Diversity in Health and Care journal, Editorial Advisory Board
    • Medscape and UMDNJ Center for Continuing and Outreach Education, Health Diversity Resource Center Initiative and Health Disparities/Cultural Competency Online Education programs (
    • Aetna Foundation-funded research project, "Assessing the Impact of Cultural Competency Training Using Participatory Quality Improvement Methods"
    • South Asian Total Health Initiative (SATHI), Department of Pediatrics, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School(
    • American College of Cardiology CREDO (Coalition to Reduce Disparities in Cardiovascular Outcomes) Initiative(
    • American Heart Association Cultural Competency Initiative
    • European Union’s Migrant–Friendly Hospitals Initiative to Promote the Health and Health Literacy of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities and Amsterdam Declaration (
    • World Health Organization/Health Promoting Hospitals Network, Task Force on Migrant-Friendly and Culturally Competent Healthcare (

Outreach and Dissemination Activities

The center offers cultural competency workshops and seminars, hosts conferences, and provides consultation and technical assistance services to a wide variety of academic medical centers, hospitals, health care professionals, and other public and private sector organizations both in the United States and abroad. Cultural Competency Workshops are available for a full-day or two half-day workshops - “Improving the Quality of Care to Our Diverse Populations” (6 credit hours).

  • Learning Objectives

    • Review epidemiologic statistics relating to disparities in health and health care in the United States
    • Define the concept and rationale for culturally competent health care
    • Discuss selected cultural and language issues, as well as bias and stereotyping, that contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in clinical care settings
    • Describe the importance of understanding both the patient’s and one’s own perspectives about the management of health and illness and quality of care
  • Learning Objectives

    • Review demographic statistics relating to cultural diversity in the United States
    • Discuss how an individual’s social and historical context can affect health beliefs and illness behaviors
    • Promotion and disease prevention programs in multicultural communities
    • Describe various health concerns and barriers to care experienced by newcomers, immigrants, and refugee populations
    • Discuss why community partnerships are needed in developing successful health
  • Learning Objectives

    • Identify key dimensions of patient-centered care and the role played by communication in developing a therapeutic alliance
    • Discuss selected clinical cases, challenges, and strategies for providing more culturally responsive and effective health care
    • Make use of practical interviewing mnemonics such as LEARN, BATHE, and ETHNIC during clinical encounters
    • Describe selected patient-centered attributes and practices that are being adopted in clinical care settings and the importance of a medical home
  • Learning Objectives

    • Review statistics about linguistic diversity in the United States
    • Identify language access requirements related to the care of individuals with limited    English proficiency
    • Recognize how cultural values and beliefs, and the lack of effective communication can impact on the delivery of health care
      Discuss the “do’s and don’ts” of working with medical interpreters
      Discuss existing interpreter standards of practice
  • Learning Objectives

    • Define the scope and impact of low health literacy in America
    • Discuss selected clinical cases illustrating health literacy challenges
      Describe practical strategies and resources that can facilitate caring for patients from diverse backgrounds with limited health literacy
  • Learning Objectives

    • Define the concept of organizational cultural competence
    • Become familiar with selected DHHS Office of Minority Health/CLAS Standards
      Describe tools that can be used to assess the “organizational cultural competence” of your practice setting
    • Describe best and promising practices relating to cultural competency that are being implemented in health care organizations.
  • Interactive didactic lectures with Powerpoint slides, videos, clinical case studies, small group exercises, and question and answer discussions are employed.

Clients and Audiences

    • Ben Gurion University of the Negev (Beersheva , Israel)
    • Congress of Azorean Communities (Terceira/Azores Islands, Portugal)
    • Covenant House (Toronto/Ontario, Canada)
    • Easter Seal Society of Canada (Toronto/Ontario, Canada)
    • International Center of Family Medicine Conference (Lisbon , Portugal)
    • International Conference on Developmental Disabilities (Herzliya, Israel)
    • Kiryat Hadassah, Hadassah Medical Organization (Jerusalem , Israel)
    • Royal College of General Practitioners (Copenhagen , Denmark)
    • University of Copenhagen (Copenhagen , Denmark)
    • University of Odense (Odense , Denmark)
    • University of Toronto (Toronto/Ontario, Canada)
    • World Health Organization/European Union's "Migrant-Friendly Hospitals"
    • Initiative to Promote the Health and Health Literacy of Migrants and
    • Ethnic Minorities" (Cadiz , Spain; Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
    • Agency for Health Care Policy and Research
    • User Liaison Program
    • Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
    • Department of Health and Human Services
    • Health Resources and Services Administration
    • Health Resources and Services Administration
    • Bureau of Primary Health Care
    • Center for Health Services Financing and Managed Care
    • National Institutes of Health
    • National Institutes of Mental Health
    • United States Public Health Service
    • Office of Minority Health
    • Office on Women's Health
    • United States Agency for International Development
    • Aetna Foundation
    • Bildner Family Foundation
    • California Endowment
    • Palm Healthcare Foundation
    • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
    • Child Regional Network
    • Eastern Society for Pediatric Research
    • Gateway Maternal Child Health Consortium
    • Nassau County Department of Health (New York)
    • National Health Service Corps, Regions I and II
    • Northeast Association of Occupational Health Nurses
    • Office for Civil Rights (Region III)
    • Powhatan Nation Annual Spring Gathering
    • Alzheimer' Association, Central New Jersey Chapter
    • American Cancer Society (New Jersey Division)
    • ARC of New Jersey
    • Atlantic County Division of Public Health
    • Cancer Institute of New Jersey
    • Cerebral Palsy Association of Middlesex County
    • Clinical Nutrition Affiliated Network of New Jersey
    • Healthy Mothers/Healthy Babies Coalition of Jersey City
    • Hudson Perinatal Consortium, Inc.
    • Middlesex County Department of Human Services
    • Multicultural Family Institute
    • Network of Affiliated Family Practice Residency Programs
    • New Jersey Academy of Family Physicians
    • New Jersey Association of Mental Health Agencies, Inc.
    • New Jersey Department of Human Services
    • Division of Developmental Disabilities
    • Division of Medical Assistance and Health Services
    • Division of Mental Health Services
    • Managed Care Task Force
    • Cultural Competency Task Force
    • New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services
    • Diabetes Prevention and Control Program Collaborative
    • Division of Family Health Services
    • National Health Service Corps Fellowship of Primary Care Health Professionals
    • Office of Cancer Control and Prevention
    • Office of Minority and Multicultural Health
    • Women's, Infant's, and Children's (WIC) Services
    • New Jersey Dietetics Association
    • New Jersey Maternal and Child Health Coalition
    • New Jersey Mental Health Institute
    • New Jersey Partnership for Cancer Control in Underserved Populations
    • New Jersey Policy Forums on Health and Medical Care
    • New Jersey Primary Care Association
    • New Jersey Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association
    • New Jersey Society for Community Health Assessment and Improvement
    • New Jersey Statewide Network for Cultural Competence
    • Northern New Jersey Perinatal Consortium
    • Abington Memorial Hospital (Abington, PA)
    • Alegent Health, with co-sponsors Tyson Foods and IBP (Omaha , NE)
    • Austin Regional Clinic (Austin, TX)
    • Children's National Medical Center (Washington, D.C.)
    • Clifton Family Practice Center (Clifton, NJ)
    • Cooper University Hospital (Camden, NJ)
    • Eric B. Chandler Health Center (New Brunswick , NJ)
    • Family Institute of New Jersey (Metuchen, NJ)
    • Family Practice Center, Inc. (New Brunswick , NJ)
    • Good Samaritan Hospital (Lebanon, PA)
    • Holy Cross Hospital (Fort Lauderdale, FL)
    • Holy Cross Hospital (Silver Spring, MD)
    • Horizon Health Center (Jersey City, NJ)
    • Illinois Masonic Medical Center (Chicago, IL)
    • Inova Health Systems (Fairfax, VA)
    • Jamaica Hospital Medical Center (Queens, NY)
    • Jersey Shore Medical Center/Meridian Health System (Neptune, NJ)
    • John F. Kennedy Hospital Family Practice Residency (Edison, NJ)
    • Kennedy Health Systems (Stratford, NJ)
    • Lenox Hill Hospital (New York, NY)
    • Liberty HealthCare Systems, Inc. (Jersey City, NJ)
    • Maine Medical Center (Portland, ME)
    • Memorial Regional Medical Center (Hollywood , FL)
    • Metropolitan Hospital (New York , NY)
    • Newark Beth Israel Medical Center/St. Barnabas Health Care System (Newark, NJ)
    • New York Downtown Hospital (New York, NY)
    • North Broward Medical Center (Pompano Beach, FL)
    • Oakwood Healthcare System (Dearborn, MI)
    • Princeton Medical Center (Princeton, NJ)
    • Princeton University Health Services (Princeton, NJ)
    • Queens Hospital Center (Queens, NY)
    • Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (New Brunswick, NJ)
    • Rutgers University Health Services (Piscataway, NJ)
    • Solaris Health Systems (Edison, NJ)
    • Somerset Medical Center (Somerset, NJ)
    • St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center (Hartford, CT)
    • St. Joseph 's Hospital and Medical Center (Paterson, NJ)
    • St. Lukes Episcopal Hospital (Houston, TX)
    • St. Peter's University Hospital (New Brunswick, NJ)
    • Temple University Health System (Philadelphia, PA)
    • Union Hospital (Terre Haute, IN)
    • University Behavioral Healthcare (Piscataway, NJ)
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Hospital (Dallas, TX)
    • Woodhull Medical and Mental Health Center/North Brooklyn Health Network (Brooklyn, NY)
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University
    • Amherst College
    • Ben Gurion University of the Negev
    • Case Western Reserve University
    • Cornell University Weill College of Medicine
    • Dartmouth Medical School
    • Eastern Virginia Medical School
    • Georgetown University
    • National Center for Cultural Competence
    • Indiana University School of Medicine
    • Medical College of Georgia
    • Medical College of Ohio
    • Meharry Medical College
    • Michigan State University
    • Montefiore Medical Center
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
    • New Jersey Area Health Education Center Interdisciplinary Training Institute
    • New York Medical College
    • Northeast Consortium on Cross-Cultural Medical Education and Practice
    • Rutgers University, Center for State Health Policy
    • Stanford University
    • State University of New York at Stony Brook
    • Stony Brook University Medical Center/Department of Social Welfare
    • Temple University Health System
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
    • University of Arizona
    • University of California at Davis
    • Hispanic Center of Excellence
    • University of Connecticut
    • University of Copenhagen
    • University of Iowa Health Sciences Center
    • Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
    • Department of Family Medicine
    • Department of Pediatrics
    • Department of Psychiatry
    • Biomedical Careers Program
    • HIPHOP Program
    • New Jersey Medical School
    • Department of Family Medicine
    • Hispanic Center of Excellence
    • Rutgers School of Osteopathic Medicine
    • Rutgers School of Public Health
    • University of Odense
    • University of Pennsylvania
    • University of Pittsburgh
    • University of Texas Health Sciences Center
    • University of Toronto
    • University of Vermont College of Medicine
    • University of Virginia at Charlottesville
    • University of Wisconsin at Madison
    • Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy
    • Alliance for Continuing Medical Association
    • Alliance for Psychosocial Nursing
    • Ambulatory Pediatric Society
    • American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine
    • American Academy of Family Physicians
    • American Academy on Physician and Patient
    • American Anthropological Association
    • American Association of University Women
    • American Geriatric Society
    • American Medical Association
    • American Psychological Association
    • Association of American Colleges and Universities Program on Health and Higher Education
    • Association of Black Cardiologists
    • Association for Health Services Research
    • Association of American Medical Colleges
    • Broward County Medical Association
    • Collaborative Family Health Care Coalition
    • Commission to End Healthcare Disparities
    • (formerly Federation Task Force on Disparities in Health Care, co-sponsored by the American Medical Association and National Medical Association)
    • Medical Library Association
    • National Association of Medical Minority Educators
    • National Hispanic Medical Association
    • National Medical Association
    • National Working Group on Medical Interpretation in Health Care
    • New York Academy of Medicine
    • North American Primary Care Research Group
    • Society of Teachers of Family Medicine
    • Aetna
    • AmeriChoice of PA (formerly HMA)
    • Health Partners
    • Horizon Blue Cross/Blue Shield of New Jersey
    • Kaiser Permanente of Southern California ( Anaheim , CA )
    • Keystone Mercy Health Plan
    • Oak Tree Health Plan
    • Physicians Health Services (PHS) Health Plans
    • Santé Health Systems/ Santé Community Physicians IPA
    • University Health Plans, Inc.
    • Institute for Healthcare Improvement
    • National Committee for Quality Assurance
    • National Initiative for Children's Healthcare Quality
    • Peer Review Organization of New Jersey
    • QSource Center for Health Care Quality
    • Aventis
    • Eisai
    • Janssen Pharmaceutical
    • Pfizer, Inc.
    • Roche
    • Advanced Health Media
    • Advanstar/Medical Economics
    • Center for Advanced Medical Education
    • Center for Business Intelligence
    • Eden Communications
    • Institute for International Research
    • Liberty Communications Network/Cardinal Health
    • American Journal of Multicultural Medicine
    • Medical Directions, Inc.
    • Strategic Research Institute
    • Families Adopting Children Everywhere
    • Jewish Community Relations Council of New York, Inc.
    • National Conference for Community and Justice -- Florida and New Jersey Regions
    • Stars of David International, Inc.
    • Aetna/US Healthcare Academic Medicine and Managed Care Forum
    • American Institutes for Research
    • American International Health Alliance
    • Center for Cross-Cultural Health (Minneapolis, MN)
    • Connecticut Hospital Association
    • DC Area Health Education Center
    • HRSA/Institute for Healthcare Improvement (Boston, MA)
    • Institute for Healthcare Improvement (Boston, MA)
    • National Health Disparities Collaboratives
    • Long Island Center for Ethics
    • Management Sciences for Health
    • National Advisory Group for the National Conference Series on Quality Health Care for Culturally Diverse Populations,
    • National Board of Medical Examiners
    • National Managed Health Care Congress
    • North American Primary Care Research Group
    • Northern Virginia Area Health Education Center
    • Oklahoma and Northeast Area Health Education Centers
    • PACT Training, Inc.
    • Resources for Cross-Cultural Health Care
    • Rhode Island Department of Health/Office of Minority Health
    • St. Paul Medical Services
    • Texas Association of Health Plans HEDIS Conference
    • Texas Managed Care Association
    • Tulin DiversiTeam Associates

Grants and Special Projects

The Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity received major grant funding for carrying out a cultural competency/quality improvement study from the Aetna Foundation, and for developing an applied primary care/health services research curriculum from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

A doctor takes a patient's blood pressure in a clinic

Accordion Content

  • Medical Education - General

    • Academic Medicine. Special Theme Issue on Cultural Competence (12 articles) 2003; 78(6), 2003.
    • Alexander M. "Cinemeducation: An Innovative Approach to Teaching Multi-Cultural Diversity in Medicine," Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education 1995; 2(1):23-28.
    • Anderson LM, Scrimshaw SC, Fullilove MT, Fielding JE, Normand J. "Culturally Competent Healthcare Systems. A Systematic Review," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2003; 24(3 Suppl):68-79.
    • Association of American Medical Colleges. "Teaching and Learning of Cultural Competence in Medical School," Contemporary Issues in Medical Education 1(5), 1998.
    • Azad N, Power B, Dollin J, Chery S. "Cultural Sensitivity Training in Canadian Medical Schools," Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):222-228.
    • Beach MC, Price EG, Gary TL, Robinson KA, Gozu A, Palacio A,; Smarth C, Jenckes M, Feuerstein C, Bass EB, Powe NR, and; Cooper LA. "Cultural Competence: A Systematic Review of Health Care Provider Educational Interventions," Medical Care 2005; 43(4):356-373.
    • Beagan BL. "Teaching Social and Cultural Awareness to Medical Students: 'It's All Very Nice to Talk about It in Theory, But Ultimately It Makes No Difference.'" Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):605-614.
    • Betancourt JR. "Cross-Cultural Medical Education: Conceptual Approaches and Frameworks for Evaluation," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):560-569.
    • Betancourt JR, Like RC, Gottlieb BR, eds. "Caring for Diverse Populations: Breaking Down Barriers," Special Issue of Patient Care: The Practical Journal for Primary Care Physicians, 2000; 34(9), May 15, 2000 (
    • Blenning CE. Cultural issues skill development [letter to the editor]. Family Medicine 2004;36(7):462.
    • Chin MH, Humikowski CA. "When is Risk Stratification by Race or Ethnicity Justified in Medical Care?" Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):202-208.
    • Crampton P, Dowell A, Parkin C, Thompson C. "Combating Effects of Racism Through a Cultural Immersion Medical Education Program," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):595-598.
    • Crandall SJ, George G, Marion GS, Davis S. "Applying Theory to the Design of Cultural Competency Training for Medical Students: A Case Study," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):588-594.
    • Crosson J, Deng W, Brazeau C, Boyd L, Soto-Greene M. Evaluating the effect of cultural competency training on medical student attitudes," Family Medicine 2004;36(3):199-203.
    • Crosson J, Deng W, Brazeau C, Boyd L, Soto-Greene M. Authors Respond to "Cultural Issues Skill Development Letter," Family Medicine 2004; 36(9):615
    • Dolhun EP. "Cross-cultural Education in U.S. Medical Schools: Development of an Assessment Tool," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):615-622.
    • Donini-Lenhoff FG, Hedrick HL. "Increasing Awareness and Implementation of Cultural Competence Principles in Health Professions Education," Journal of Allied Health 2000; 29(4):241-245.
    • Drouin J, Jean P. "Educating Future Physicians for a Minority Population: A French-Language Stream at the University of Ottawa," Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):217-221.
    • Drouin J, Rivet C. "Training Medical Students to Communicate with a Linguistic Minority Group," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):599-604.
    • Ferguson WJ, Keller DM, Haley HL, Quirk M. "Developing Culturally Competent Community Faculty: A Model Program," Academic Medicine 2003; 78:1221-1228.
    • Flores G, Gee D, Kastner B. "The Teaching of Cultural Issues in U.S and Canadian Medical Schools," Academic Medicine 2000; 75(5):451-455.
    • Fuller K. "Eradicating Essentialism from Cultural Competency Education," Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):198-201.
    • Principles and Recommended Standards for Cultural Competence Education of Health Care Professionals, 2003
    • A Manager's Guide to Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals, 2003
    • Resources in Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals, 2003
    • Godkin MA, Savagneau JA. The Effect of a Global Multiculturalism Track on Cultural Competence of Preclinical Medical Students," Family Medicine 2001; 33(3):178-186.
    • Goldman RE, Monroe AD, Dube CE. "Cultural Self-Awareness: A Component of Culturally Responsive Patient Care," Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education 1996; 3(1):37-46.
    • Gonzalez-Lee T, Simon HJ. "Teaching Spanish and Cross-Cultural Sensitivity to Medical Students. Western Journal of Medicine 1987; 146(4):502-504.
    • Green AR, Betancourt JR, Carrillo JE. Integrating Social Factors in Cross-Cultural Medical Education. Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):193-197.
    • Hedrick H, ed. Cultural Competence Compendium, Chicago : American Medical Association, 1999.
    • Helman CG: Culture, Health and Illness, Fourth Edition. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2000.
    • Kagawa-Singer M, Kassim-Lakha S. "A Strategy to Reduce Cross-cultural Miscommunication and Increase the Likelihood of Improving Health Outcomes," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):577-587.
    • Kai J, Spencer J, Wilkes M, Gill P. "Learning to Value Ethnic Diversity - What, Why and How?" Medical Education 1999; 33(8):616-623.
    • Langer N. "Culturally Competent Professionals in Therapeutic Alliances Enhance Patient Compliance," Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 1999; 10(1):19-26.
    • Loudon RF, Anderson PM, Gill PS, Greenfield SM. "Educating Medical Students for Work in Culturally Diverse Societies," Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 282(9):875-880.
    • Lum CK, Korenman SG. "Cultural Sensitivity Training in US Medical Schools," Academic Medicine 1994; 69(3):239-241.
    • McCullough-Zander K, ed. Caring Across Cultures: The Provider's Guide to Cross-Cultural Health, Second Edition, The Center for Cross-Cultural Health, Minneapolis, MN, 2000 (
    • Nora LM, Daugherty SR, Mattis-Peterson A, Stevenson L, Goodman LJ. "Improving cross-cultural skills of medical students through medical school-community partnerships," Western Journal of Medicine 1994; 161(2):144-147.
    • Nunez AE. "Transforming Cultural Competence into Cross-Cultural Efficacy in Women's Health Education," Academic Medicine 2000; 75:1071l-1080.
    • Price EG, Beach MC, Gary TL, Robinson KA, Gozu A, Palacio A, Smarth C, Jenckes M, Feuerstein C, Bass EB, Powe NR, and Cooper LA. "A Systematic Review of the Methodological Rigor of Studies Evaluating Cultural Competence Training of Health Professionals," Academic Medicine 2005; 80:578-586.
    • Robins LS, Alexander GL, Wolf FM, Fantone JC, Davis WK. "Development and evaluation of an instrument to assess medical students' cultural attitudes," Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 1998; 53 (3 Suppl.):124-129.
    • Robins LS, White GL, Gruppen LD, Grum CM. "Assessing Medical Students' Awareness of and Sensitivity to Diverse Health Beliefs Using a Standardized Patient Station," Academic Medicine 2001; 76(1):76-80.
    • Tang TS, Bozynski EA, Mitchell JM, Haftel HM, Vanston SA, Anderson RM. "Are Residents More Comfortable Than Faculty Members When Addressing Sociocultural Diversity in Medicine?" Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):629-633.
    • Taylor JS. "Confronting 'Culture' in Medicine's 'Culture of No Culture,'" Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):555-559.
    • Tervalon M. "Components of Culture in Health for Medical Students' Education," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):570-576.
    • Tervalon M, Murray-Garcia J: "Cultural Humility Versus Cultural Competence: A Critical Distinction in Defining Physician Training Outcomes in Multicultural Education," Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 1998; 9(2):117-124.
    • Turbes S, Krebs E, Axtell S. "The Hidden Curriculum in Multicultural Medical Education: The Role of Case Examples," Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):209-216/.
    • Wachtler C, Troein M. "Mapping Cultural Competency," Medical Education 2003; 37(10):861-868.
    • Wear D. Insurgent Multiculturalism: Rethinking How and Why We Teach Culture in Medical Education," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):549-554.
    • Weissman JS, Betancourt JS, Campbell EG, Park ER, Kim M, Clarridge B, Blumenthal D, Lee KC, Maina AW, " Resident Physicians' Preparedness to Provide Cross-Cultural Care," JAMA 2005; 1058-1067.
    • Wright SM, Carrese JA. "Serving as a Physician Role Model for a Diverse Population of Medical Learners," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):623-628.
    • Zweifler J, Gonzalez AM. "Teaching Residents to Care for Culturally Diverse Populations," Academic Medicine 1998; 73(10):1056-1061.

    Family Medicine/General Practice

    • Berlin E, Fowkes W. "A Teaching Framework for Cross-Cultural Health Care," Western Journal of Medicine 1983; 139:934-938.
    • Borkan JM, Neher JO. "A Developmental Model of Ethnosensitivity in Family Practice Training," Family Medicine 1991; 23(3):212-217.
    • Culhane-Pera KA, Like RC, Lebensohn-Chialvo P, Loewe R. "Multicultural Curricula in Family Practice Residencies," Family Medicine 2000; 32(3):167-173.
    • Culhane-Pera KA, Reif C, Egli E, Baker NJ, Kassekert R. "A Curriculum for Multicultural Education in Family Medicine," Family Medicine 1997; 29(10):719-723.
    • Kai J, ed. Ethnicity, Health, and Primary Care, Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2003.
    • Kristal L, Pennock P, Foote S, Trygstad C. "Cross-Cultural Family Medicine Residency Training," Journal of Family Practice 1993; 17:683-687.
    • Shapiro J, Lenahan P. "Family Medicine in a Culturally Diverse World: A Solution-Oriented Approach to Common Cross-Cultural Problems in Medical Encounters," Family Medicine 1996; 28(4):249-255.
    • Shapiro J, Hollingshead J, Morrison EH. Primary Care Resident, Faculty, and Patient Views of Barriers to Cultural Competence, and the Skills Needed to Overcome Them," Medical Education 2002; 36:749-759.


    • American Academy of Pediatrics. "Culturally Effective Pediatric Care: Education and Training Issues," Pediatrics 1999; 103(1):167-170.
    • Davis BJ, Voegtle KH. Culturally Competent Health Care for Adolescents: A Guide for Primary Care Health Providers. Chicago, IL : American Medical Association, 1994.
    • Flores G. "Culture and the Patient-Physician Relationship: Achieving Cultural Competency in Health Care. Journal of Pediatrics 2000; 136(1):14-23.
    • Flores G, Abreu M, Schwartz I, Hill M. "The Importance of Language and Culture in Pediatric Care: Case Studies from the Latino Community," Journal of Pediatrics 2000; 137(6):842-8.
    • Pachter LM. "Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care," In Nelson WE, senior ed; Behrman RE, Kinegman RM, Arvin AM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 15 th ed. Philadelphia, PA : WB Saunders Co; 1996.
    • Randall-David E. Strategies for Working with "Culturally Diverse Communities and Clients. Washington, DC : Association for the Care of Children's Health, 1989.

    Internal Medicine

    • Bigby JA, ed. Cross-Cultural Medicine. Philadelphia : American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, 2003.
    • Bobo L, Womeodu RJ, Knox ALJr. "Principles of intercultural medicine in an internal medicine program," American Journal of Medical Science 1991; 302(4):244-248.
    • Carillo JE, Green AR, Betancourt JR. "Cross-Cultural Primary Care: A Patient-Based Approach," Annals of Internal Medicine 1999; 130:829-834.
    • Kleinman A, Eisenberg L, Good B. "Culture, Illness, and Care: Clinical Lessons from Anthropologic and Cross-Cultural Research," Annals of Internal Medicine 1978; 88:251-258.


    • Kagawa-Singer M, Blackhall LJ. "Negotiating Cross-Cultural Issues at the End of Life. 'You've Got to Go Where He Lives,'" Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 286:2993-3001.
    • Kobylarz FA, Heath JM, Like RC: "The ETHNIC(S) Mnemonic: A Clinical Tool for Ethnogeriatric Education," Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2002; 50:1582-1589.
    • Yeo G et al. Core Curriculum in Ethnogeriatrics. Developed by the Members of the Collaborative on Ethnogeriatric Education, Supported by the Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, USDHHS, October 2000 (

    Obstetrics and Gynecology

    • ACOG Committee Opinion. "Cultural Competency in Health Care." No. 201, March 1998. Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 1998 Jul, 62(1):96-99.

    Psychiatry/Psychology Health/Social Work

    • Garza-Trevino ES, Ruis P, Venegas-Samuels K. "A Psychiatric Curriculum Directed to the Care of the Hispanic Patient," Academic Psychiatry 1997; 21(1):1-10.
    • Lu FH, Lim RF, Mezzich JE. "Issues in the Assessment and Diagnosis of Culturally Diverse Individuals," in Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 14), eds. JM Oldham and MB Riba, eds., London, England : American Psychiatric Press, 1995, pp. 477-510.
    • Lu FG. "Cultural Competence and Diversity: An Update for Psychiatric Educators," AADPRT, Winter, 1996.
    • McGoldrick M, Pearce JK, Giordano J. Ethnicity and Family Therapy, 2 nd Edition, New York : Guilford Press, 1996.
    • National Maternal and Child Health Resource Center on Cultural Competency. Cultural Diversity Curriculum Set for Social Workers and Health Practitioners, Austin, Tex : University of Texas, 1998.
    • Paniagua FA. Assessing and Treating Culturally Diverse Clients: A Practical Guide. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications, 1994.
    • Pinderhughes EB. Understanding Ethnicity, Race, and Power: The Key to Efficacy in Clinical Practice. New York : The Free Press, 1989.
    • Spielvogel AM et al. "A Psychiatric Residency Curriculum About Gender and Women's Issues," Academic Psychiatry 1995; 19:187-201.
    • Stein TS. "A Curriculum for Learning in Psychiatric Residencies About Homosexuality, Gay Men, and Lesbians," Academic Psychiatry 1994; 18:59-70.
    • Sue DW, Sue D. Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, 4 th edition, New York : John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
    • Thompson JW. "A Curriculum for Learning About American Indians and Alaska Natives in Psychiatric Residency Training," Academic Psychiatry 1996; 20:5-14.


    • Campinha-Bacote J. The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services, 1998 (Available from Josepha Campinha-Bacote, PhD, RN, CS, CTN, FAAN, President, Transcultural C.A.R.E., Associates, 11108 Huntwicke Place, Cincinnati, OH 45241).
    • Campinha-Bacote J, ed. Readings and Resources in Transcultural Healthcare and Mental Health (13 th edition), 2002(Available from Josepha Campinha-Bacote, PhD, RN, CS, CTN, FAAN, President, Transcultural C.A.R.E., Associates, 11108 Huntwicke Place, Cincinnati, OH 45241).
    • Campinha-Bacote J. "A Model and Instrument for Addressing Cultural Competence in Health Care," Journal of Nursing Education 1999;38(5):203-207.
    • Galanti Geri-Ann. Caring for Patients from Different Cultures: Case Studies from American Hospitals, Third edition. Philadelphia, PA : University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
    • Leininger M. T ranscultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, and Practices, 2 nd edition, New York : National League for Nursing Press, 1995.
    • Leininger M, McFarland MR. Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research & Practice, 3 rd edition, New York : McGraw Hill, 2002.
    • Lipson JG, Dibble SL, Minarik PA. Culture & Nursing Care: A Pocket Guide. San Francisco : UCSF Nursing Press, 1996.
    • Purnell L, Paulanka B, eds. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, Philadelphia : Davis, 1998.
    • Spector RE. Cultural Diversity in Health & Illness, Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River : Prentice-Hall, 2003.
    • Tripp-Reiner T, Choi E, Kelley S, Enslien J. Cultural Barriers to Care: Inverting the Problem. Diabetes Spectrum 2001; 14(1):13-22.

    Occupational Therapy/Rehabilitation

    • Wells SA. A Multicultural Education and Resource Guide for Occupational Therapy Educators and Practitioners. Bethesda, MD : American Occupational Therapy Association, 1994.
    • Wells SA, Black RM. Cultural Competency for Health Professionals. Bethesda, MD : American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc., 2000.

    Public Health

    • Gonzalez VM, Gonzales JR, Freeman V, Howard-Pitney B. Health Promotion for Diverse Cultural Communities. Palo Alto, CA : Stanford Health Promotion Resource Center ( Stanford Center for Research and Disease Prevention), 1991
    • Huff RM, Kline MV, eds. Promoting Health in Multicultural Populations: A Handbook for Practitioners, Thousand Oaks, CA : SAGE, 1999.
  • The Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity does not provide medical advice or clinical professional services.  All medical assistance or other decisions should be made in consultation with your physicians. Rutgers will not be liable for any complications, injuries, or other medical accidents arising from or in connection with the use of or reliance upon any information obtained from this website or on the Internet.

Contact Us

Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity
Matrix Plaza 1
303 George Street, Room 320
New Brunswick, NJ 08901

Karen WeiRu Lin, MD, MS, FAAFP
Office: 732-235-8642
Fax: 732-235-6095