Selected References

Medical Education - General

  • Academic Medicine. Special Theme Issue on Cultural Competence (12 articles) 2003; 78(6), 2003.
  • Alexander M. "Cinemeducation: An Innovative Approach to Teaching Multi-Cultural Diversity in Medicine," Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education 1995; 2(1):23-28.
  • Anderson LM, Scrimshaw SC, Fullilove MT, Fielding JE, Normand J. "Culturally Competent Healthcare Systems. A Systematic Review," American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2003; 24(3 Suppl):68-79.
  • Association of American Medical Colleges. "Teaching and Learning of Cultural Competence in Medical School," Contemporary Issues in Medical Education 1(5), 1998.
  • Azad N, Power B, Dollin J, Chery S. "Cultural Sensitivity Training in Canadian Medical Schools," Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):222-228.
  • Beach MC, Price EG, Gary TL, Robinson KA, Gozu A, Palacio A,; Smarth C, Jenckes M, Feuerstein C, Bass EB, Powe NR, and; Cooper LA. "Cultural Competence: A Systematic Review of Health Care Provider Educational Interventions," Medical Care 2005; 43(4):356-373.
  • Beagan BL. "Teaching Social and Cultural Awareness to Medical Students: 'It's All Very Nice to Talk about It in Theory, But Ultimately It Makes No Difference.'" Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):605-614.
  • Betancourt JR. "Cross-Cultural Medical Education: Conceptual Approaches and Frameworks for Evaluation," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):560-569.
  • Betancourt JR, Like RC, Gottlieb BR, eds. "Caring for Diverse Populations: Breaking Down Barriers," Special Issue of Patient Care: The Practical Journal for Primary Care Physicians, 2000; 34(9), May 15, 2000 (
  • Blenning CE. Cultural issues skill development [letter to the editor]. Family Medicine 2004;36(7):462.
  • Chin MH, Humikowski CA. "When is Risk Stratification by Race or Ethnicity Justified in Medical Care?" Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):202-208.
  • Crampton P, Dowell A, Parkin C, Thompson C. "Combating Effects of Racism Through a Cultural Immersion Medical Education Program," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):595-598.
  • Crandall SJ, George G, Marion GS, Davis S. "Applying Theory to the Design of Cultural Competency Training for Medical Students: A Case Study," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):588-594.
  • Crosson J, Deng W, Brazeau C, Boyd L, Soto-Greene M. Evaluating the effect of cultural competency training on medical student attitudes," Family Medicine 2004;36(3):199-203.
  • Crosson J, Deng W, Brazeau C, Boyd L, Soto-Greene M. Authors Respond to "Cultural Issues Skill Development Letter," Family Medicine 2004; 36(9):615
  • Dolhun EP. "Cross-cultural Education in U.S. Medical Schools: Development of an Assessment Tool," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):615-622.
  • Donini-Lenhoff FG, Hedrick HL. "Increasing Awareness and Implementation of Cultural Competence Principles in Health Professions Education," Journal of Allied Health 2000; 29(4):241-245.
  • Drouin J, Jean P. "Educating Future Physicians for a Minority Population: A French-Language Stream at the University of Ottawa," Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):217-221.
  • Drouin J, Rivet C. "Training Medical Students to Communicate with a Linguistic Minority Group," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):599-604.
  • Ferguson WJ, Keller DM, Haley HL, Quirk M. "Developing Culturally Competent Community Faculty: A Model Program," Academic Medicine 2003; 78:1221-1228.
  • Flores G, Gee D, Kastner B. "The Teaching of Cultural Issues in U.S and Canadian Medical Schools," Academic Medicine 2000; 75(5):451-455.
  • Fuller K. "Eradicating Essentialism from Cultural Competency Education," Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):198-201.
  • Principles and Recommended Standards for Cultural Competence Education of Health Care Professionals, 2003
  • A Manager's Guide to Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals, 2003
  • Resources in Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals, 2003
  • Godkin MA, Savagneau JA. The Effect of a Global Multiculturalism Track on Cultural Competence of Preclinical Medical Students," Family Medicine 2001; 33(3):178-186.
  • Goldman RE, Monroe AD, Dube CE. "Cultural Self-Awareness: A Component of Culturally Responsive Patient Care," Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education 1996; 3(1):37-46.
  • Gonzalez-Lee T, Simon HJ. "Teaching Spanish and Cross-Cultural Sensitivity to Medical Students. Western Journal of Medicine 1987; 146(4):502-504.
  • Green AR, Betancourt JR, Carrillo JE. Integrating Social Factors in Cross-Cultural Medical Education. Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):193-197.
  • Hedrick H, ed. Cultural Competence Compendium, Chicago : American Medical Association, 1999.
  • Helman CG: Culture, Health and Illness, Fourth Edition. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Kagawa-Singer M, Kassim-Lakha S. "A Strategy to Reduce Cross-cultural Miscommunication and Increase the Likelihood of Improving Health Outcomes," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):577-587.
  • Kai J, Spencer J, Wilkes M, Gill P. "Learning to Value Ethnic Diversity - What, Why and How?" Medical Education 1999; 33(8):616-623.
  • Langer N. "Culturally Competent Professionals in Therapeutic Alliances Enhance Patient Compliance," Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 1999; 10(1):19-26.
  • Loudon RF, Anderson PM, Gill PS, Greenfield SM. "Educating Medical Students for Work in Culturally Diverse Societies," Journal of the American Medical Association 1999; 282(9):875-880.
  • Lum CK, Korenman SG. "Cultural Sensitivity Training in US Medical Schools," Academic Medicine 1994; 69(3):239-241.
  • McCullough-Zander K, ed. Caring Across Cultures: The Provider's Guide to Cross-Cultural Health, Second Edition, The Center for Cross-Cultural Health, Minneapolis, MN, 2000 (
  • Nora LM, Daugherty SR, Mattis-Peterson A, Stevenson L, Goodman LJ. "Improving cross-cultural skills of medical students through medical school-community partnerships," Western Journal of Medicine 1994; 161(2):144-147.
  • Nunez AE. "Transforming Cultural Competence into Cross-Cultural Efficacy in Women's Health Education," Academic Medicine 2000; 75:1071l-1080.
  • Price EG, Beach MC, Gary TL, Robinson KA, Gozu A, Palacio A, Smarth C, Jenckes M, Feuerstein C, Bass EB, Powe NR, and Cooper LA. "A Systematic Review of the Methodological Rigor of Studies Evaluating Cultural Competence Training of Health Professionals," Academic Medicine 2005; 80:578-586.
  • Robins LS, Alexander GL, Wolf FM, Fantone JC, Davis WK. "Development and evaluation of an instrument to assess medical students' cultural attitudes," Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 1998; 53 (3 Suppl.):124-129.
  • Robins LS, White GL, Gruppen LD, Grum CM. "Assessing Medical Students' Awareness of and Sensitivity to Diverse Health Beliefs Using a Standardized Patient Station," Academic Medicine 2001; 76(1):76-80.
  • Tang TS, Bozynski EA, Mitchell JM, Haftel HM, Vanston SA, Anderson RM. "Are Residents More Comfortable Than Faculty Members When Addressing Sociocultural Diversity in Medicine?" Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):629-633.
  • Taylor JS. "Confronting 'Culture' in Medicine's 'Culture of No Culture,'" Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):555-559.
  • Tervalon M. "Components of Culture in Health for Medical Students' Education," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):570-576.
  • Tervalon M, Murray-Garcia J: "Cultural Humility Versus Cultural Competence: A Critical Distinction in Defining Physician Training Outcomes in Multicultural Education," Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 1998; 9(2):117-124.
  • Turbes S, Krebs E, Axtell S. "The Hidden Curriculum in Multicultural Medical Education: The Role of Case Examples," Academic Medicine 2002; 77(3):209-216/.
  • Wachtler C, Troein M. "Mapping Cultural Competency," Medical Education 2003; 37(10):861-868.
  • Wear D. Insurgent Multiculturalism: Rethinking How and Why We Teach Culture in Medical Education," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):549-554.
  • Weissman JS, Betancourt JS, Campbell EG, Park ER, Kim M, Clarridge B, Blumenthal D, Lee KC, Maina AW, " Resident Physicians' Preparedness to Provide Cross-Cultural Care," JAMA 2005; 1058-1067.
  • Wright SM, Carrese JA. "Serving as a Physician Role Model for a Diverse Population of Medical Learners," Academic Medicine 2003; 78(6):623-628.
  • Zweifler J, Gonzalez AM. "Teaching Residents to Care for Culturally Diverse Populations," Academic Medicine 1998; 73(10):1056-1061.

Family Medicine/General Practice

  • Berlin E, Fowkes W. "A Teaching Framework for Cross-Cultural Health Care," Western Journal of Medicine 1983; 139:934-938.
  • Borkan JM, Neher JO. "A Developmental Model of Ethnosensitivity in Family Practice Training," Family Medicine 1991; 23(3):212-217.
  • Culhane-Pera KA, Like RC, Lebensohn-Chialvo P, Loewe R. "Multicultural Curricula in Family Practice Residencies," Family Medicine 2000; 32(3):167-173.
  • Culhane-Pera KA, Reif C, Egli E, Baker NJ, Kassekert R. "A Curriculum for Multicultural Education in Family Medicine," Family Medicine 1997; 29(10):719-723.
  • Kai J, ed. Ethnicity, Health, and Primary Care, Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • Kristal L, Pennock P, Foote S, Trygstad C. "Cross-Cultural Family Medicine Residency Training," Journal of Family Practice 1993; 17:683-687.
  • Shapiro J, Lenahan P. "Family Medicine in a Culturally Diverse World: A Solution-Oriented Approach to Common Cross-Cultural Problems in Medical Encounters," Family Medicine 1996; 28(4):249-255.
  • Shapiro J, Hollingshead J, Morrison EH. Primary Care Resident, Faculty, and Patient Views of Barriers to Cultural Competence, and the Skills Needed to Overcome Them," Medical Education 2002; 36:749-759.


  • American Academy of Pediatrics. "Culturally Effective Pediatric Care: Education and Training Issues," Pediatrics 1999; 103(1):167-170.
  • Davis BJ, Voegtle KH. Culturally Competent Health Care for Adolescents: A Guide for Primary Care Health Providers. Chicago, IL : American Medical Association, 1994.
  • Flores G. "Culture and the Patient-Physician Relationship: Achieving Cultural Competency in Health Care. Journal of Pediatrics 2000; 136(1):14-23.
  • Flores G, Abreu M, Schwartz I, Hill M. "The Importance of Language and Culture in Pediatric Care: Case Studies from the Latino Community," Journal of Pediatrics 2000; 137(6):842-8.
  • Pachter LM. "Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care," In Nelson WE, senior ed; Behrman RE, Kinegman RM, Arvin AM, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 15 th ed. Philadelphia, PA : WB Saunders Co; 1996.
  • Randall-David E. Strategies for Working with "Culturally Diverse Communities and Clients. Washington, DC : Association for the Care of Children's Health, 1989.

Internal Medicine

  • Bigby JA, ed. Cross-Cultural Medicine. Philadelphia : American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, 2003.
  • Bobo L, Womeodu RJ, Knox ALJr. "Principles of intercultural medicine in an internal medicine program," American Journal of Medical Science 1991; 302(4):244-248.
  • Carillo JE, Green AR, Betancourt JR. "Cross-Cultural Primary Care: A Patient-Based Approach," Annals of Internal Medicine 1999; 130:829-834.
  • Kleinman A, Eisenberg L, Good B. "Culture, Illness, and Care: Clinical Lessons from Anthropologic and Cross-Cultural Research," Annals of Internal Medicine 1978; 88:251-258.


  • Kagawa-Singer M, Blackhall LJ. "Negotiating Cross-Cultural Issues at the End of Life. 'You've Got to Go Where He Lives,'" Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 286:2993-3001.
  • Kobylarz FA, Heath JM, Like RC: "The ETHNIC(S) Mnemonic: A Clinical Tool for Ethnogeriatric Education," Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2002; 50:1582-1589.
  • Yeo G et al. Core Curriculum in Ethnogeriatrics. Developed by the Members of the Collaborative on Ethnogeriatric Education, Supported by the Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, USDHHS, October 2000 (

Obstetrics and Gynecology

  • ACOG Committee Opinion. "Cultural Competency in Health Care." No. 201, March 1998. Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 1998 Jul, 62(1):96-99.

Psychiatry/Psychology Health/Social Work

  • Garza-Trevino ES, Ruis P, Venegas-Samuels K. "A Psychiatric Curriculum Directed to the Care of the Hispanic Patient," Academic Psychiatry 1997; 21(1):1-10.
  • Lu FH, Lim RF, Mezzich JE. "Issues in the Assessment and Diagnosis of Culturally Diverse Individuals," in Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 14), eds. JM Oldham and MB Riba, eds., London, England : American Psychiatric Press, 1995, pp. 477-510.
  • Lu FG. "Cultural Competence and Diversity: An Update for Psychiatric Educators," AADPRT, Winter, 1996.
  • McGoldrick M, Pearce JK, Giordano J. Ethnicity and Family Therapy, 2 nd Edition, New York : Guilford Press, 1996.
  • National Maternal and Child Health Resource Center on Cultural Competency. Cultural Diversity Curriculum Set for Social Workers and Health Practitioners, Austin, Tex : University of Texas, 1998.
  • Paniagua FA. Assessing and Treating Culturally Diverse Clients: A Practical Guide. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications, 1994.
  • Pinderhughes EB. Understanding Ethnicity, Race, and Power: The Key to Efficacy in Clinical Practice. New York : The Free Press, 1989.
  • Spielvogel AM et al. "A Psychiatric Residency Curriculum About Gender and Women's Issues," Academic Psychiatry 1995; 19:187-201.
  • Stein TS. "A Curriculum for Learning in Psychiatric Residencies About Homosexuality, Gay Men, and Lesbians," Academic Psychiatry 1994; 18:59-70.
  • Sue DW, Sue D. Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, 4 th edition, New York : John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
  • Thompson JW. "A Curriculum for Learning About American Indians and Alaska Natives in Psychiatric Residency Training," Academic Psychiatry 1996; 20:5-14.


  • Campinha-Bacote J. The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services, 1998 (Available from Josepha Campinha-Bacote, PhD, RN, CS, CTN, FAAN, President, Transcultural C.A.R.E., Associates, 11108 Huntwicke Place, Cincinnati, OH 45241).
  • Campinha-Bacote J, ed. Readings and Resources in Transcultural Healthcare and Mental Health (13 th edition), 2002(Available from Josepha Campinha-Bacote, PhD, RN, CS, CTN, FAAN, President, Transcultural C.A.R.E., Associates, 11108 Huntwicke Place, Cincinnati, OH 45241).
  • Campinha-Bacote J. "A Model and Instrument for Addressing Cultural Competence in Health Care," Journal of Nursing Education 1999;38(5):203-207.
  • Galanti Geri-Ann. Caring for Patients from Different Cultures: Case Studies from American Hospitals, Third edition. Philadelphia, PA : University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
  • Leininger M. T ranscultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, and Practices, 2 nd edition, New York : National League for Nursing Press, 1995.
  • Leininger M, McFarland MR. Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories, Research & Practice, 3 rd edition, New York : McGraw Hill, 2002.
  • Lipson JG, Dibble SL, Minarik PA. Culture & Nursing Care: A Pocket Guide. San Francisco : UCSF Nursing Press, 1996.
  • Purnell L, Paulanka B, eds. Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally Competent Approach, Philadelphia : Davis, 1998.
  • Spector RE. Cultural Diversity in Health & Illness, Sixth Edition, Upper Saddle River : Prentice-Hall, 2003.
  • Tripp-Reiner T, Choi E, Kelley S, Enslien J. Cultural Barriers to Care: Inverting the Problem. Diabetes Spectrum 2001; 14(1):13-22.

Occupational Therapy/Rehabilitation

  • Wells SA. A Multicultural Education and Resource Guide for Occupational Therapy Educators and Practitioners. Bethesda, MD : American Occupational Therapy Association, 1994.
  • Wells SA, Black RM. Cultural Competency for Health Professionals. Bethesda, MD : American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc., 2000.

Public Health

  • Gonzalez VM, Gonzales JR, Freeman V, Howard-Pitney B. Health Promotion for Diverse Cultural Communities. Palo Alto, CA : Stanford Health Promotion Resource Center ( Stanford Center for Research and Disease Prevention), 1991
  • Huff RM, Kline MV, eds. Promoting Health in Multicultural Populations: A Handbook for Practitioners, Thousand Oaks, CA : SAGE, 1999.